components of the transport system and their functions
A human need continuous transport of nutrients and exchange of gases throughout its all parts. For this, there are two types of transport system present.
- a. The circulatory system comprising heart, Blood, blood vessels, capillaries and veins.
- b. The lymphatic system comprising lymph vessels and lymph fluid.
Functions of the components
Heart: It is the major pumping organ which pumps the blood. It has four chambers. Right atria receive the de-oxygenated blood from veins. Right ventricle pushes the blood to the lungs where the exchange of gases takes place. After the exchange of gases left atrium receives oxygenated blood and pushes the oxygen-rich blood and nutrients to all parts of the body through the left ventricle.
Blood: Blood consists of Red blood corpuscles, Plasma, and platelets.
RBC's: RBC's carry oxygen from the lungs and transport it to all parts of the body.
Plasma: Plasma contains dissolved carbon dioxide and nitrogenous wastes which are excreted out from the lungs and kidney respectively. It also contains minerals and nutrients which are needed by the body.
Platelets: Platelets do the maintenance of the blood vessels. If there is any rupture of vessel platelets migrate to the area and plug the fracture by the process called clotting.
Blood vessels: these are the narrow tube through which blood flows.
Capillaries: Blood vessels go narrower and thinner near the cells. We call this single-celled lining of the cells as capillary. Food material and gases ooze out from the capillaries and deliver nutrition to nearby cells.
Veins: Veins carry wastes material like carbon dioxide and nitrogenous wastes from the cell and transport is to respective organs for excretion. They have valves which prevent the reverse flow of the blood.
Lymph fluid: This fluid takes the fluid which oozes out from the cells and fats from the intestine.
Lymph Vessels: Lymph vessels transport the lymph fluid from the cells and drops it into the blood vessels.